A Year of Drops

by Katie LaFond

I celebrate the Earth as Sacred, and it started me down a path many years ago that has borne some surprising fruit. Below is a collection of simple things you can do to help live more lightly on the Earth. I consider each of these an act of prayer.

The tips are organized into 12 sections. [Editor’s note: we’ll be posting them once a week here for the next little while!] A lot of these cross over, but this will get you started. Focus on one section at a time.

This is one of the rings made in the visioning ritual at Twilight Covening.  It reminds us that we can create new ways of being in the world.

This is one of the rings made in the visioning ritual at Twilight Covening. It reminds us that we can create new ways of being in the world.time. Really incorporating these habits into your life will take time. Be patient with the process and with yourself. It has taken my family many years to incorporate these changes into our lives.

Do these at your own pace. With 12 sections, you can choose to focus on one area for the amount of time that feels right to you. If you find the pacing too fast/slow, you can always modify your habits. The point here is to see how easy it can be to weave some of these into your life. Remember that this blog post is only the beginning. This can be a lifestyle change, and will take you on interesting adventures along the way. Every drop in the bucket makes a difference.

  1. Get serious about Recycling
  2. Get serious about Reusing
  3. Get serious about Reducing
  4. Start Composting
  5. Use your car less
  6. Locate your local food options
  7. Where do your things come from? Try to source as many of the things you use within a 100 mile radius of your home
  8. Start a garden
  9. Look into buying “Environmentally Friendly” products.
  10. Energy consumption
  11. Get Crafty
  12. Educate yourself

This post is the first in a series of thirteen posts by Katie on ways you can walk more lightly on the Earth.  Stay tuned for the rest!  

Report on Religions for the Earth and the People’s Climate March, Part II

Moira Ashleigh and other EarthSpirit members in the crowd before the Climate March

Moira Ashleigh and other EarthSpirit members in the crowd before the Climate March

by Andras Corban-Arthen

This is an end-of-the-year report (in two parts) on my participation in some interfaith activities this past fall. Brief commentaries about these events were previously published on EarthSpirit’s Facebook page, and a version of this report appears in the latest issue (#119) of Circle Magazine. I’d like to thank all the members and friends of EarthSpirit, whose generous donations to our community support our participation in events such as the ones I describe here.

The Climate March on Sunday was doubtlessly the best-organized demonstration I have ever been a part of. The organizers had anticipated at least 100,000 people, so they had staggered the marchers by dividing us into several different contingents, “penning” each one in a different city block adjacent to the March route. The contingents were defined by “themes” which identified different ways in which people related to climate change: science, for instance, or politics, or religion/spirituality, etc. That way, you could identify whichever theme you were most drawn to, go to that particular city block, and wait with like-minded people until it was your contingent’s turn to start marching.

EarthSpirit members during the March

EarthSpirit members during the March

The Pagan Environmental Coalition of NY led by Courtney Weber, which took on the job of organizing the pagan marchers, wisely had us join the interfaith contingent, and we shared the street with Buddhists, Muslims, Quakers, Jews, Christians, Hindus, Unitarians, Bahá’ís, Sikhs – it was like a mini Parliament of the World’s Religions in the guise of a block party. A Muslim group brought along an inflatable mosque. A Christian group built a Noah’s Ark float to focus attention on how animals are imperiled by global warming. About twenty EarthSpirit members showed up – not only from New York, but from Massachusetts, Connecticut and New Jersey as well – bringing drums and rattles, and getting all kinds of people to join in singing many of our community’s chants.

The PECNY also helped to put together an interreligious service to kick off the March, and they were very kind to invite me to offer the pagan blessing in the ceremony. These are the words I spoke:

Andras speaking at the Climate March

Andras speaking at the Climate March

“In the Spirit of the Earth, we are coming together;
in the Spirit of the Earth, we are one…” *

We come from the north, and we come from the south;
we come from the west, and we come from the east.
We gather from all directions
to march for this living planet
who is our home, who is what we are.
But we do not march only for ourselves,
we march for all beings of the Earth.
And so we call to sun, to wind and rain;
we call to mountains and glaciers;
we call to all who walk and crawl, who fly and swim;
we call to our ancestors, both seen and unseen;
we call to oceans and streams,
to trees, and grasses and stones
to guide and bless every step we take,
that we may once again live in harmony
with our Mother the Earth.
As it was, as it is, as it ever shall be;
with the flow and the ebb, as it ever shall be.

(© 2014, Andras Corban-Arthen; *© 2000, Deirdre Pulgram-Arthen)

By the time my turn came, the crowd had grown to approximately 10,000 people packed like sardines in our block; there was barely enough room to move but a few inches. From my vantage point up on the stage, I was suddenly able to see what those below me couldn’t: just one street away, an unending river of people was flowing along the March route – a surprising and breathtaking sight. I certainly hadn’t expected anything quite that massive; it was quite obvious that there were substantially more than 100,000 people marching.

Just before we finally started to move, I got into a conversation with one of the police officers patrolling our street. He told me that, in his thirty years on the force, this was the first time that the event organizers had more than delivered on what they’d promised. According to him, demonstration organizers tend to grossly exaggerate beforehand the number of people they expect at their events, in the hope of generating enough excitement to actually draw something close to that number. This time, when the organizers had first predicted around 100,000 marchers, there had been a great deal of skepticism among the authorities and the media; except that he had just heard over the police scanner that the line of marchers was over four miles long, and that the current estimate was around 400,000 people. But what really impressed him the most, he told me, was that there had not been a single arrest or similar incident of any kind reported, and that, amazingly, the marchers were not leaving any trash at all in their wake. “Tell you what,” he said, “if what I’m seeing here is what this movement is really about, then I gotta think that maybe there’s still hope for the world.”

ESC Climate March

Report on Religions for the Earth and the People’s Climate March, Part I

Participants at the Multifaith Service, Cathedral of St. John the Divine

Participants at the Multifaith Service, Cathedral of St. John the Divine

by Andras Corban-Arthen

This is an end-of-the-year report (in two parts) on my participation in some interfaith activities this past fall. Brief commentaries about these events were previously published on EarthSpirit’s Facebook page, and a version of this report appears in the latest issue (#119) of Circle Magazine. I’d like to thank all the members and friends of EarthSpirit, whose generous donations to our community support our participation in events such as the ones I describe here.

Two important and related events were held in New York City over the weekend of the autumnal equinox, 19-21 September: the People’s Climate March, a 3-mile long demonstration through the streets of Manhattan as a call for awareness and action regarding environmental deterioration; and the Religions for the Earth Conference, held at Union Theological Seminary to bring together some 200 leaders from diverse spiritual traditions, to discuss how teachings of the various religions can address the climate change crisis. I attended both events, which were timed to coincide with the Climate Summit scheduled to take place a few days later at the United Nations, at the behest of Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon.

The Religions for the Earth Conference was organized by the Union Forum, a platform within Union Theological Seminary which promotes dialogue about religion and social ethics in order to bring about positive civic engagement. In her message of welcome to the conference participants, Karenna Gore, director of the Union Forum, had this to say about the purpose of the event:

“Spiritual and religious leaders have a place in this conversation precisely because it is their vocation to call for sacrifice and reverence to something larger than oneself. Religious leadership is at its best when challenging the status quo, including the powerful, wealthy institutions and individuals who will resist being moved. Our religions are organized differently, but each has the potential for exponential effect throughout our interconnected world. Those of you gathering at Union this weekend hold extraordinary strength within you and also the kindness and love to bring out the best in each other.”

I attended Religions for the Earth representing the three main organizations with which I am affiliated: my community, EarthSpirit; the Parliament of the World’s Religions, which was one of the co-sponsors of the conference; and the European Congress of Ethnic Religions, of which I am president. The Parliament’s delegation also included our Chair, Imam Abdul Malik Mujahid, our Executive Director, Dr. Mary Nelson, and several other trustees, among them Phyllis Curott, the other pagan who serves with me on the Parliament’s Board.

Most of the presentations at the conference took the form of panel discussions, in which participants from several different religious traditions addressed topics such as “Climate Change, Gender & Human Rights”; “Integrating the Earth into Worship, Liturgy and Devotion”; “Environmental Racism and Climate Justice Initiatives”; “Engaging Ecological Despair and Grief”; and “Race, Class & Hemisphere: Regional Identity and Climate”, among others.

Panel on Indigenous Traditions, (l-r): François Paulette, Mindahi Bastida-Muñoz, Tonya Frichner, Andras Corban-Arthen, Chief Arvol Looking Horse.

Panel on Indigenous Traditions, (l-r): François Paulette, Mindahi Bastida-Muñoz, Tonya Frichner, Andras Corban-Arthen, Chief Arvol Looking Horse.

I was asked to be one of the members of a panel entitled “What Moves Us: Values, Narratives & the Climate Crisis – the Indigenous Traditions”, moderated by Tonya Gonnella Frichner of the Onondaga Nation, and founder of the American Indian

Law Alliance. The other panelists were François Paulette of the Dene people from northwest Canada, Mindahi Bastida-Muñoz of the pueblo Otomí from México, and Chief Arvol Looking Horse of the Lakota Nation. My role on the panel was to represent the indigenous European traditions. I had met most of the other panelists at previous interreligious events, so I was very glad to be in their company once again.

One of the most important points made by everyone in our panel was that the environmental crisis has grown out of a prevailing sense in Western culture that we are separate from the Earth, which fosters in people the entitled delusion that we can treat the natural world any way we want to. In my own remarks, I pointed out that, in Western culture, this sense of separation has specifically been fostered and transmitted by the dominant religion. The notion that Nature is fundamentally base, and eventually destined to be replaced by an otherworldly paradise (or its opposite) has been a deeply-ingrained Christian paradigm for many centuries. The same is true for the notion of a divinely-appointed human

Mesoamerican indigenous ceremony at Union Theological Seminary

Mesoamerican indigenous ceremony at Union Theological Seminary

supremacy over all other beings of the Earth: the human arrogance and greed, and the objectification and devaluing of Nature that are such predictable corollaries of that notion, lie at the very core of the environmental disasters we are now facing.

Our discussion also underscored the fact that, for many decades, indigenous peoples have been issuing warnings about growing changes which are affecting climate and, therefore, everything that exists upon the Earth; but Westerners have not listened, because they are in the habit of dismissing anything which indigenous people might say.

This point was likewise made, in eloquent fashion, by the Onondaga faithkeeper Oren Lyons during one of the plenary sessions. Chief Lyons told about a meeting he once had with an Inuit elder from Greenland, who informed him that “the ice is melting in the North” – trickles of water had begun to appear on the surface of the glaciers some years before, and those trickles had now grown into permanent rivers. Throughout the rest of his speech, Chief Lyons ended every new paragraph by repeating the warning that “the ice is melting in the North”; the more he said those words, the more that he powerfully drove home the sense of urgency, and even of inevitability, surrounding climate change. Some people in the audience were visibly flinching. As he was about to finish, Chief Lyons revealed an alarming detail he had been saving for the very end. That speech we had just heard, he told us, was not new; it was, in fact, the exact same speech he had delivered at the United Nations fourteen years before. But no one had listened then, he admonished us, and it had taken the U.N. almost a decade and a half to finally organize a Climate Summit.

Chief Arvol Looking Horse at the Multifaith Service

Chief Arvol Looking Horse at the Multifaith Service

Former Vice-President Al Gore speaking at the Multifaith Service

Former Vice-President Al Gore speaking at the Multifaith Service

Because participation in the conference was by invitation only, and limited to just a couple of hundred attendees, it fostered a sense of intimacy which I have rarely found at other interfaith events, and provided the opportunity for rich, in-depth dialogue. I think that many of the conversations and initiatives that emerged from Religions for the Earth will prove to be very fruitful over the next several years. The conference ended with a deeply meaningful multifaith service at the Cathedral of St. John the Divine, with former Vice-President Al Gore as one of the main speakers.

(l-r): Phyllis Curott, Andras & Deirdre Arthen at Multifaith Service

(l-r): Phyllis Curott, Andras & Deirdre Arthen at Multifaith Service

Performers from the Metawee Theatre Company

Performers from the Metawee Theatre Company

Journey at Twilight

journey at twilight72dpi

“Journey at Twilight, 29” – Acrylic, Ash on Masonite Panel – 24” x 48”


by Martin Bridge

This piece was painted in its entirety during the 29th annual Twilight Covening held by the EarthSpirit Community. Twilight Covening is an intensive weekend-long ritual experience during which individuals spend a large portion of the event in their “clans,” each of which has an individual focus to deepen some aspect of one’s spiritual practice. Clans focus on anything from astrology and divination to yoga, drumming, breath-work and other esoteric practices.

This year I led the Orb Weaver clan along with Kaye Kittredge. Our clan’s work was focused for individuals to deepen their artistic and creative practices in relationship with their spiritual lives, as well as creating as a part of a ritual practice.

We set to work as the event began Friday night, observing and translating the events, energies and landscape into symbolic form. Continuing through the next day, we also translated and distilled some key elements of Sunday’s Visioning ritual into symbols that many of us wove into our paintings, which later graced the space where the community waited inside before leaving for the journey into the night.

For, me the second I arrived on the beautiful mountaintop, graced by peak New England autumn color, I was flooded with imagery that all could have been translated into a piece. I fed my attachment to any resulting outcome to Friday night’s releasing fires, so that I could focus on pulling in the imagery and energies that I encountered over the subsequent days into the piece as it evolved. The releasing fires themselves, the hillsides casting their shadowy reflections on the lake as one moon looming above and another on the water, raindrops on the water’s surface, branches, faces, Agility, Strength, Patience, Love, Courage, and Wisdom all wove themselves into this work over the weekend.

For those of you not familiar with the Earthspirit Community, it was founded in the 1970’s and is centered in the hills of Western Mass. where I live, but also extends far from here. It is an organization whose purpose is the preservation and development of Earth-centered spirituality, culture and community – especially regarding the indigenous pre-Christian traditions of Europe – through education, practice and by organizing public rituals and events. The largest of these events are “Twilight Covening” each October, “Rites of Spring” every May and “A Feast of Lights” at the very end of January, where the Faery Seership “Vision Keys” that I have shared here will be on display. [A Feast of Lights will be held Jan.30 – Feb. 1, 2015 in Northampton, Massachusetts. For further information, please go to http://www.earthspirit.org]

For more information about Martin Bridge’s art, please go to: www.thebridgebrothers.com and www.facebook.com/martinbridgeart


ROS Fire Circle 2014aby Lyra Hilliard

Return with me, for a sweet moment
onto the top of the mountain
that holy place where we remember who we are.

What is your favorite spot?
Where on that expansive site do you stand firmly
on the ground, feeling the pulse of the earth shoot
through your body, realigning your bones and the muscles that bind them,
reawakening your sense of connection and trust?

Where do you remember the wind
kissing your skin,
dancing through trees’ leaves, gently
dipping branches to bow to you?

Where does the water speak to you–and how?
Is it the lake shrines, beach times, streams winding
softly over rocks or roaring near sun-flecked cliffs?

Where does the fire invite your
soul to dance, your
blood to rise, your
armor to melt?

Where does your body remember its power?
Where do you breathe deeply, love freely,
raise your neck, stand tall, feel your
shoulders straighten as your hips and heart reopen?

Me, too.

Go there. Return with me, for a sweet moment.

Return to the place teeming with renewal
Each being sloughing off its winter sheath
to gently reveal the sweet skin beneath
each birth, bud, and blade a radiant jewel

on the crown of that mountain that
pulls us, molds us,
holds up a mirror to remind us
how stunning we are.

I see you, too.

I see smiles of relief and release at the gate
I see sparks in your eyes of knowing and becoming
I see open palms and outstretched arms
I see you kneeling to kiss the ground.

I hear hushed excitement broken
by djembe slaps and throbbing djuns,
by a chorus of voices rising up through the night
by inimitable shrieks of delight.

I feel the vibrations of your feet underneath my own,
my breath quicken as shadows yield to painted faces
my heart pound as I stand between two sisters to
sing you and welcome you home to the fire.

Here, in this temple, I see beauty Everywhere.
I see you shine and risk, rise and kiss
the flames with your voices and drumbeats, your
flying limbs and whirling feet, your tending and
serving and burning through layers
that no longer fit to reveal
the you we’ve all been waiting for.

I see you, and I bow before your sovereignty.

Return with me, for this sweet moment.
Come home with me, to this fire,
to this temple, to this mountain, to this
of beloveds.

And say yes
if you will return again, for
many, many more moments
in the flesh
So that we may play and pray and remember ourselves for
many, many more fires
to come.

© Lyra Hilliard 2014

Photo by Rowan Oakthorn


Indigenous spirituality, EarthSpirit Community – An Interview with Andras Corban-Arthen

By Christopher BlackwellAndras PWR 2004-72dpi

When we think of the Pagan religions of Europe, most of us consider the original religions long dead with only the reconstructions that exist today. But is that actually true? Did the old religions die out completely or did they hang on as folk lore, or did any of them manage to survive into the modern age? Here is one area that we might ask of Andras Corban-Arthen, who is the founder of EarthSpirit Community, one of the oldest Pagan groups still operating in our country.

Christopher: Could you give us a bit of background on yourself as a person?

Andras: My family of origin is Hispanic. On my father’s side they were mostly from Galiza, in northwestern Spain, which was the last outpost of Celtic civilization in that land. Though they have lost the original language, most Galegos to this day still consider themselves to be Celts, and that was an important part of the cultural context in which I grew up. My mother and her father were Cuban; her mother was Basque.

I grew up in Spain, in Cuba, in Florida and in Puerto Rico. We were living in Havana at the time of the Revolution, but left soon after; we were planning to go back to Spain, but things didn’t work out and we came to the U.S. instead. I was raised Roman Catholic, and spent a few years in a special school for boys whose families had destined them for the priesthood (I can still recite a lot of the old Tridentine Mass in Latin by memory), but I parted ways with Christianity when I was sixteen.

I’ve traveled a good bit, mostly throughout Europe and the Americas. I came to Massachusetts in the late sixties to go to college, and have lived here ever since – first in the Boston area, then for the past fifteen years in the countryside of the Berkshire hills, toward the western part of the state. My wife Deirdre and I have been together since 1980, and have a son and a daughter, ages 24 and 20. We are part of an intentional pagan family, about a dozen of us who’ve been together for close to three decades now.

We live in Glenwood, a 135-acre working farm surrounded by thousands of acres of forest, which also serves as a pagan sanctuary and small conference center. Over the years, as a way to honor our relationship with this land, we’ve built a stone circle, a 60-foot-wide labyrinth, an Ancestor Shrine and a Peace Cairn. There are a lot of maples on the land, so we make our own maple syrup, and we have an organic garden that yields most of our produce for the year. We have lots of domestic and farm animals (dogs, cats, goats, sheep, chickens, turkeys, ducks, rabbits and a llama) and the land abounds with all sorts of wildlife. And we have a wealth of spiders.

As for what I do, I serve as spiritual director of the EarthSpirit Community, through which I’ve been full-time pagan ‘clergy’ since about 1980. My main work involves teaching, public speaking, community development, spiritual counseling, organizing events, officiating at ceremonies such as weddings and other rites of passage, and interacting with the media.

A good deal of my work has also been focused on interfaith dialogue and networking, particularly through the Parliament of the World’s Religions – I am a member of its board of trustees, and am currently coordinating its Ambassadors program, as well as serving as liaison to its partner organization in Guadalajara, México. I am also on the board of directors of the European Congress of Ethnic Religions, an organization headquartered in Vilnius, Lithuania, which promotes the revitalization of indigenous European paganism, and in which I serve as international interreligious liaison. And I am part of the advisory council of the Ecospirituality Foundation, an NGO based in Torino, Italy, which works with the United Nations on indigenous issues throughout the world.

Christopher: How long have you been Pagan? What path do you follow?

Andras: Officially, since the beginning of 1969, which is when I met my teachers. They were a married couple, about twice my age, who were part of what originally had been a Gaelic-speaking family from the Scottish Highlands (the man in the couple still spoke Gaelic fluently). The family had been forced to leave their homeland during the Clearances, and some of them eventually settled near Edinburgh. At the time I met the two of them, they had been in the Boston area for some time, pursuing graduate studies, though they eventually moved on.

I was told about them by a mutual friend, who, before agreeing to introduce us, pointedly warned me that they were ‘witches.’ That really piqued my curiosity, because the thought that there might actually be people in the late 20th century who considered themselves to be witches seemed so outrageously absurd to me that I had to check them out.

But they turned out to be quite different from what I’d expected – they were very intelligent and well-educated, but also very accessible and unassuming, and we hit it off right away. Our first couple of encounters included several remarkable ‘coincidences’ on both of our parts that left us with the sense that our meeting was somehow fated.

For me, it was definitely one of those things where you meet someone and you immediately feel like you’ve known them all your life, like they’re family. In particular, the things they told me about their spiritual practices somehow made far more sense and were more immediately appealing to me than anything else I had found. After a few weeks, as we started developing a friendship, I asked them if they would teach me, and they agreed to do so. I’ve been engaged in those practices ever since.

Christopher: Is this neopaganism or is there a tie to the ancient religions?

Andras: Their teachings were not neopagan, although, at the time, I had no way of knowing that, since I had no other frame of reference except what I was being taught. But several years later, after my teachers left the area and I was on my own, as I started to meet more and more neopagans it became disconcertingly obvious that what I had been taught was very different from what my new friends practiced.

One major difference is that neopaganism typically borrows isolated elements from many diverse cultures and creates a very eclectic synthesis of them.

Conversely, what I was taught came from one particular culture which was indigenous to a very specific part of the world; and the fact that I was not a member of that culture by birth or rearing, and that I was not being taught those practices in the land where they had originated, were both obstacles to my assimilation of the teachings, and there were certain compensations that I had to make to overcome those obstacles.

For my teachers, the idea that you could just take random bits out of a culture into which you hadn’t been assimilated didn’t make any sense – they thought it was like eating the skin of a fruit while leaving the pulp to rot.

There were many other important differences: for instance, my teachers’ practices were essentially animistic – they involved no belief in or worship of deities. At the core of their teachings was the experience of Mystery, of engaging the unknown directly, without attempting to explain it or shape it. Rituals (if they could really be called that) were very simple and mostly wordless affairs, which relied more on the execution of practices than on anything else – the kinds of ‘dramatic’ ceremonies that are so common in neopaganism, including the enactment of various mythological tableaux and such, played no part at all in what they did. We didn’t work in a circle, or invoke elements, or use specifically ‘magical tools.’

Most of their practices were meant to be engaged in a state of trance, which they had several different ways of attaining. The Gaelic term they used for ‘trance’ essentially means ‘mist’: you became ‘enmisted’ – in other words, you engaged a process that took you outside the ordinary world and, in so doing, gave you access to spiritual currents that enhanced you, and changed you, and shaped you. One of the ways they used for inducing the trance was communion with a particular mushroom – this is yet another difference, since many neopagans see such practices as dangerous or inappropriate.

All of their teachings were rooted in a sense that the natural world was the matrix, the source of life and spiritual wisdom and soul-strength, but to them, nature meant wilderness – environments that were not manipulated and controlled by humans. So we spent a lot of time in the woods, mostly outside the city, though there was a particular park near us that was pretty much abandoned and reverting to its natural state, where we could go in a pinch.

This is another way their teachings differed from neopaganism, in that they were adamant that I strive to experience the natural world as it really was, not as a symbol. In neopaganism, there’s a very common pattern of representing nature symbolically, as various aspects of the human condition (air is intellect, fire is passion, water is emotion, etc.) My teachers stressed the very opposite: in their approach, for instance, not only was fire never passion or any other human trait – it wasn’t even fire. To them, the very concept of ‘fire’ was itself a symbol that kept us from truly experiencing the essence of the force we call by that name. Some of their practices were meant to induce a state in which language became meaningless, and where the natural world could be perceived much more directly.

Because of my youth and lack of experience, while I was with my teachers it never really occurred to me to probe too deeply into the background of what they taught me; I pretty much accepted it at face value and focused on the practices themselves. My encounters with neopagan groups, which had such a different approach, made me want to get a more objective sense of what I had been taught. A couple of years after my teachers had left, an American Indian friend suggested that the teachings I had received from them might be the remnants of an indigenous (or, as he put it, ‘native’) tradition from the Highlands, and that some of the practices sounded very similar to shamanism.

So I started to read up on shamanism (this was many years before it became a New Age fad, so the information was not easy to come by), and that led me to a wider study of indigenous cultures. After a while, it became very clear to me that there were certain key elements which were consistently found among indigenous peoples throughout the world, and that those very elements were strikingly similar to a lot of what I had been taught. And then I realized that the old pagan cultures of Europe took on a whole new perspective – a richer, fuller meaning – if they were looked at in the context of indigenous traditions.

I also began to wonder that, if indeed, what I had been taught represented a survival of an indigenous pagan tradition – could there be others? Where could they be found? How might they be similar or different? So, I set myself the task of attempting to find out the answers to these questions.

Christopher: When we think of the old religions, most of us consider that they disappeared after the coming of Christianity. How could any of them survive, and in what form, into the modern age?

Andras: It’s hard to answer this briefly, because it’s a very complicated subject and not well-served by brevity or generalizations, but I’ll give it a try. Yes, conventional wisdom certainly holds that the old pagan traditions disappeared as a result of the Christianization of Europe, but one of the main problems with conventional wisdom is that it tends to get passed along unchallenged and untested. There’s a subtle but important distinction, for instance, between something ‘disappearing’ and something ‘ceasing to exist.’ It’s very clear that most of the pre-Christian European spiritual traditions have disappeared, because they’re not obviously present, not easily found. And, of course, it’s a good bet that most of them have also ceased to exist altogether. But was that actually true for all of them? How can we know that for sure?

It is quite well documented, for instance, that the Mari people in Eastern Europe have maintained their unbroken animistic pagan religion to the present, even after the Christianization of their country several hundred years ago. Could there be any other similar survivals elsewhere in Europe? Is it possible that some of those old traditions may actually have survived by ‘disappearing,’ by going underground?

I have now spent over thirty-five years trying to find such survivals, and it’s been a very difficult, painstaking process involving lots of correspondence, lots of phone calls, lots of travel. In that time I’ve met many people, both in Europe and in the Americas, who had practices that were obvious syncretisms of Christianity with traditional pagan elements, to varying degrees. Those are not that hard to find – you scratch the surface a bit, and there they are, far more common than perhaps many imagine.

I’ve tried to focus my search, however, on finding people who were preserving what I would consider unbroken, substantial survivals of traditional paganism – such as the Mari – that were as untainted as possible by Christianity (to the degree that anything in Western culture, including neopaganism or even atheism, could be ‘untainted’ by Christianity at this point). This has been a much more difficult process, because it has involved not only finding such people and making contact, but more importantly, gradually cultivating enough trust to get to the point where they were willing to meet with me and to answer some of my questions.

To date, I have found close to a dozen, in both Eastern and Western Europe. That’s not a lot, but if I’ve been able to find those with my relatively meager resources, I imagine there must be quite a few more out there.

I should make clear that these survivals are not widespread or out in the open. They mostly involve very small, isolated communities or even just a few families, whose practices and beliefs are either not known to most of their neighbors, or are tolerated by them. And they are not people living in little thatched huts, wearing medieval peasant garb, though their way of life tends to be substantially different from modern American urban culture.

The survivals I have found have certain key elements in common that I think have helped them to endure: They exist in fairly remote or ‘undesirable’ rural locations, in places where the original, ancestral languages are still spoken; this has provided them with a certain degree of insulation. They are in regions where there have been major sociopolitical upheavals which have destabilized the existing power structure and have taken the focus away from religious persecution or suppression.

They involve extended families or small communities that hold on to a very strong cultural identity and nationalistic sentiments, and particularly deeply-ingrained feelings of connection for the physical environment in which they live, and their ‘religions’ are very much an integral, vital part of their culture; in other words, they are not just trying to preserve their religion, but their entire way of life. And they involve people who bear a strong animosity – in some cases, hatred – toward Christianity, for reasons which range from the cultural and historical to the purely personal.

The people who preserve these traditions claim – as my own teachers did – that they are unbroken, that they have existed as far back as anyone can remember (in the sense of cultural, not individual memory, naturally). It is, of course, almost impossible to conclusively prove any of this because, first, any attempt to offer irrefutable proof would require them to expose themselves to public scrutiny, which they’re not at all likely to do, as it would mean giving up perhaps the most important thing that has allowed them to survive in the first place; and, second, most of them quite probably lack the kind of detailed documentation that would be needed for such proof to be truly conclusive.

Obviously, there’s a lot more that could be said about all this. For the past several years, I have offered a presentation entitled “The ‘Indians’ of Old Europe” (a title which was given to me by a Hopi elder), describing in greater detail some of my experiences, limited though they be, exploring the perspective of the old pagan cultures as indigenous traditions, as well as my efforts to find current survivals of them. I’m hoping to be able to offer it in book form by next year.

Christopher: When and why was EarthSpirit Community formed?

Andras: I founded EarthSpirit in 1977, originally as a bartering co-operative, in an attempt to start developing community by finding people who shared some of my own interests in nature spirituality, social activism and radical politics. When my wife Deirdre came along in 1980, we decided to turn EarthSpirit into a much more comprehensive and specifically pagan type of organization.

When I began meeting my first neopagans, one of the things that I found particularly confusing was that they were presenting paganism exclusively as a religion. My sense, based on the teachings I’d received as well as my own research, was that the old paganisms had not been stand-alone religions but, rather, cultural traditions that had spiritual practices and beliefs deeply integrated within them. To me, it seemed that in the interrelationship between culture and religion, the culture served as the vehicle through which the spiritual principles and values were incorporated into the everyday lives of the people.

But, if paganism was going to exist as a religion without a culture, how was it going to achieve that integration? The answer, it seemed clear, was that the automatic default would be mainstream American culture, which is inherently Christian (even in ways that are not so obvious) and seemed to embody the very opposite of the ideas and values that most neopagans I knew were professing to uphold. (Personally, I think that this particular conflict, and the resulting lack of integration, have only gotten worse over the years, and that they’re the source for a lot of the problems which so many modern pagans frequently complain about.)

So, as we envisioned EarthSpirit, we felt very strongly that its chief aim should be to help develop modern pagan culture and community – even if it had to be of a generic nature in order to include all of the people we were trying to reach – that could gradually help to identify traditional pagan values and eventually incorporate them in people’s lives.

In 1979, the year before Deirdre came, I had organized the first Rites of Spring gathering under the sponsorship of the Mass. Pagan Federation, a networking organization of which I had been one of the founding members. Unfortunately, as has happened with so many other pagan confederations over the years, the MPF disbanded right after the gathering, so Deirdre and I decided to continue organizing the event (which is now approaching its 34th year) [ed. note: ROS 36 will take place next month] under the aegis of EarthSpirit.

From then on, things began to develop very quickly. Our initial focus was to provide services for pagans in the Greater Boston area, so we began to offer public classes in various locations, as well as open seasonal rituals, various kinds of special-interest groups, a newsletter, a monthly coffeehouse, an ongoing study group, retreats, speakers, a film series, salon-style discussion groups, etc.

As the organization grew in numbers, we also began to acquire members from all over the Northeast, and eventually from various parts of the country. In response to our growing membership we added three more gatherings, began to publish a professionally-produced magazine, and developed our ritual performance ensemble, MotherTongue, which has performed nationally and internationally, and has produced several recordings. I also began to travel around the country a good bit, speaking at various conferences and offering presentations which were sponsored by some of our national members.

With the coming of the Internet, our numbers grew even more and we started getting members from other countries as well. This was around the same time that some of us moved to Glenwood, so our work evolved to yet another stage as we developed a website and an Internet presence, and began to offer programs and ceremonies at our new home. We developed Anamanta, which is a pagan spiritual practice adapted from the teachings I received, in an attempt to make them more accessible.

We also established several programs for young people, including EarthWise, a pagan summer camp, and EarthSpirit PeaceJam, a service-learning group for adolescents in collaboration with the PeaceJam Foundation, a wonderful organization that brings teen-agers together with Nobel Peace Prize laureates to develop projects around themes of social justice, peace, the environment, etc.

Obviously, work of this kind and scope is not something that one or two people can do by themselves. There’s a whole core group – well over a hundred of us – who work together to run the organization and manage the events. But it’s not just a question of how many, but also of how long – a lot of our core group has been involved in this work for ten to twenty years or more. I also think that we have been able to last as long as we have because for so many of us, what we do for EarthSpirit is part of our spiritual practice – whether we’re cooking a meal, teaching class, or putting stamps on fliers. And we are blessed to be part of a community that includes a lot of very creative and talented people – and generous, to boot: there’s no way we could do most of what we do (particularly our interfaith outreach) without their ongoing support.

One of the most rewarding things about the work we do is when that work gets shared and spreads throughout the community at large. For instance, I was just reading a new book, “Universal Heartbeat: Drumming, Spirit and Community,” by my friend Morwen Two Feathers, who is a long-time member of EarthSpirit, and I couldn’t help but reminisce on how things were in the old days. Back in the mid-seventies, when I was first exploring shamanism, I started to use a drum in my practices as a way to induce trance, and found it extremely effective. But when I took it to a couple of rituals organized by Wiccan friends, I got all kinds of flack about it because, after all, the drum was not a tool listed in the Book of Shadows.

At the first Rites of Spring, I was the only one there with a drum, and I built a small fire and invited people to take part in a fire circle, but most everybody just sort of moved away, as if they were afraid of catching something. I remember somebody joking that if I wanted to play Indian, I should find a loincloth and take my tom-tom to the reservation, because “we’re pagans here.”

Eventually a couple of belly dancers joined, and a tambourine player, and someone playing a recorder, and that was the first fire circle at Rites of Spring – pretty pathetic, though ultimately meaningful. But every year after that, we kept having a fire circle, and it grew, and more pagans brought drums. And then people like Morwen and her partner Jimi, and many others made huge contributions to the evolution of the fire circle, until it became not only a centerpiece of the culture at Rites of Spring, but also was spread around the country by some of our community members, and now there are several Fire Circle gatherings in various parts of the country that are directly descended from the one at Rites of Spring.

Because of our interest in indigenous European paganism, EarthSpirit has sought, since the beginning, to build bridges with indigenous communities from around the world, particularly with American Indians. We want to be able to understand firsthand the various issues faced by those communities, and to lend a hand if and when we can.

One particular area of concern is the wanton appropriation of indigenous spirituality by non-Indian people, including some pagans. And we also want to make them aware of the indigenous dimension of European paganism, since it is not something most people are familiar with. In 1986, we established the EarthWays Initiative as a vehicle to engage in dialogues with indigenous leaders. To date, there have been more than two-dozen such conversations with people from nine different countries.

EarthSpirit has also been involved in interfaith dialogue for a very long time. We realized early on that the interreligious community was a forum where pagans could potentially be seen and heard and accepted for who we really are.

The interreligious movement is particularly focused on eradicating prejudice and on promoting social justice, as well as understanding and respect among the world’s faiths. There are many influential religious and academic leaders who are part of that movement. We felt that, given the opportunity, if we could change a lot of perceptions regarding paganism in that setting, those changes could, in turn, wind up benefiting pagans everywhere. Deirdre and I were members of the Greater Boston Interfaith Council for most of the eighties and early nineties, and then starting in 1993, we began a long association with the Parliament of the World’s Religions.

The Parliament is the world’s oldest and largest interreligious event, originating in Chicago in 1893. It is convened approximately every five years in a different city, and draws close to 10,000 participants from just about every corner and religion of the world to spend a week attending workshops, panel discussions, ceremonies, artistic events, etc. EarthSpirit has sent a delegation to each of the modern Parliaments – in Chicago (1993), Cape Town (1999), Barcelona (2004) and Melbourne (2009), and MotherTongue has performed at three of them (the next Parliament is scheduled for Brussels, Belgium in 2014). In 2006, I was elected to the board of trustees of the Council that organizes and runs the Parliament.

An important focus of my work in the Parliaments, and in the interreligious movement in general, has been to present the European pagan traditions in the context of the indigenous cultures of the world, a case which I have tried to make in various forums since the late 1970s. Within the interfaith community, the different religions tend to be grouped under several distinct categories: Abrahamic, Asian, Indigenous, etc. Pagans are generally placed in the category of New Religious Movements, which, as the title implies, includes religions of fairly recent origin (generally those which were established after 1850).

This certainly seems to be the most appropriate designation for neopaganism, and, in principle, there is no stigma attached to such a categorization, which also includes many well-respected religions. It also, however, includes several religions which are considered to be ‘cults’ by a great many people and, given the negative baggage that pagans have had to endure, our inclusion in that category exclusively makes it easy for our detractors to engage in a little ‘guilt by association.’

In suggesting that some pagan traditions should be more properly included in the Indigenous category, I have tried not only to underscore the indigenous character of those traditions, but also to bring some balance to the way pagans are perceived in the interfaith movement, since in that movement the indigenous traditions are accorded a great deal of well-deserved respect, not only for the length of their existence, but also for the many evils they’ve had to suffer.

As you might imagine, there’s been a great deal of resistance to this idea, a lot of it coming from Christian conservatives who realize (and have told me as much) that the inclusion of paganism in the Indigenous category could give it the credibility to raise serious accusations against Christianity (and particularly the Roman Catholic Church) for its wanton slaughter and extermination of the European pagan peoples.

But not only the Christians have been resistant – many pagans have objected as well because – given how incredibly touchy the question of ‘legitimacy’ has been in the pagan movement – they fear that this would create a pagan hierarchy within the interfaith community. That has certainly never been my intention, I see it essentially as a question of two substantially different approaches to paganism, belonging in two different categories.

When the Parliament was convened in Melbourne a couple of years ago, the Indigenous traditions were a major focus of the event. I was part of the Task Force that organized the Indigenous programming, and was delighted when the other members of the Task Force decided to include the European traditions in the program. In so doing, for the first time ever a major interreligious organization finally recognized traditional European paganism as indigenous.

I was invited to be one of two representatives of the European traditions and, in turn, I invited krivis Jonas Trinkunas, the head priest of Romuva – the pagan religion of Lithuania – to be the other. I think it was a real eye-opener for many pagans at the Parliament to see how differently we were treated by many members of the interfaith community, once they began to wrap their heads around the concept of indigenous pagan spirituality. But the best thing of all, to me, was the very warm welcome and acceptance we received from the various indigenous delegates at the Parliament.

Christopher: Where can people learn more?

Andras: The EarthSpirit website can be found at http://www.earthspirit.com, and the e-mail address is earthspirit@earthspirit.com; there’s also a Facebook page. The postal address is P. O. Box 723,Williamsburg, MA 01096. I can be reached at aarthen9@gmail.com, and I’m also on Facebook.

[This interview is re-printed in full, with permission, from ACTION, the newsletter of the Alternate Religions Educational Network, Yule 2011].

Imbolc Hymn

Photo by Lyle Willow Harrison Hawthorne

Photo by Lyle Willow Harrison Hawthorne

by Andrew Watt
(Andrew wrote and recited this poem – which so eloquently captures the power and magic of the season – for our community’s Imbolg ceremony at the Stag King’s Masque, during this year’s A Feast of Lights gathering. We are very grateful for his contribution, as well his permission for us to publish it here.)

Hail to thee, night of the Flame Rekindled,
The secret spark hidden from wind and wet.
The Sun rears up, untamed and unbridled,
Thawing the winter – but lest we forget
And believe Spring is already at hand –
The elms are barren, though eager for spring;
The beech leaves remain cramped in tiny points;
Yet new signs of growth appear in the land:
And we have seen the grosbeak on the wing.
Each icicle the thirsty earth anoints

With the drip-drip-drip of gravity’s grace
Which ploughs the ground, and transmutes it to mud:
The rich, fertile loam of Mother Earth’s face.
Thus the seed quickens. Soon the grass will bud,
And those tender shoots will climb to the sky,
Food for the new-born lambs and kids and foals,
On hours-old legs unsteady and new.
And even so, we hear the vulture’s cry,
To warn us that Death, ever present, pulls
Us to her halls, and our hours are few.

Therefore we rejoice and kindle the flame,
But hide it from the ice-storm and the thaw.
Life walks unsteady, and yet is not tame:
All things survive by talon, tooth and claw.
Even the tulip sleeping in her den
Battles for the right to unfurl her bloom
Against the hungry mole and the choking weed.
And so we praise returning light again,
While recalling that life plants its own doom,
Shaping its ending in egg, shoot, and seed.

© 2014, Andrew Watt

Brotherhood of the Stag

by Martin Bridge and Wren Two Feathers

Brotherhood of the Stag and Wolf

Brotherhood of the Stag and Wolf

10 years after the inception of an intensive workshop designed to serve the young men in the EarthSpirit Community at Rites of Spring, what was first given the moniker of the “Brotherhood of the Stag” has blossomed into a greater men’s circle.  Many of us who have been raised within or near the community are awestruck by how the group has grown.

The Cairn

The Cairn

After years of many of us expressing interest in meeting outside of the confines of Rites, the concept of creating a dedicated space for us to meet has now manifested in a massive megalithic site a mere few miles from EarthSpirit’s home at Glenwood Farm in western Massachusetts.  After a year of planning we garnered the support of the larger community to help fund the creation of this space. On Sunday, November 24th, the brotherhood returned to the circle they had cleared in April to stand on and within the stones that, to us, symbolize the endurance we wish to be reflected in our growing brotherhood. Nothing ever prepared us to have a community of men supporting us the way this one does. To be further supported by and serve in support of a larger community is something that enriches us all.

The Brotherhood of the Stag maintains a Facebook page here.  You can like it to keep up on what they’re doing and share your support.

Spinning Yarns with Llama Clan

This post is by Katie Birdi.  Katie follows an Earth-based spirituality and has studied Anamanta and Blackheart Feri. A third-generation fiber artist and a flutist, Katie has taught workshops in a variety of pagan disciplines, and lives with her family amidst a sea of wool in Western MA.

Llama Clan was born of Wool and Magic. My life has been threaded through with fiber arts, music, magic, and stories of my ancestors.

spinning…Hi, I’m Katie and I’m 4 and three-quarters years old. I love dancing and my doggie and my Nannie is teaching me how to spin yarn, knit, and crochet. She’s got a big wheel that spins around and around and she lets me push my foot on the pedal while she moves the fluffy stuff through her fingers and tells me stories about magic.

…Hello, I’m Kathryn, I’m in the eighth grade, and my Mom, Aunt, and Nan just made me a special dinner. I recently became a Woman. They gave me special earrings, told me stories, and my Nan joked that I wouldn’t be a “real” knitter until I could knit on US size 2 needles. My Aunt’s knitting takes my breath away, and she talks about it like it is a living thing. I’m starting to understand that it IS a living thing!

…I’ve been unable to walk for 4 years now, so I’m really grateful for my Mom, flute, television, and my knitting needles. Nan, Mom, Auntie and I sit, knit, tell stories, and have tea and cookies. Sometimes as we tell stories, my eyes get heavy, and I feel like I’m dreaming. The stories are more complex now, and when I knit, they get woven into my project. I’m starting to feel the love and the stories in the sweaters that my Mom knits for me.

…Birdi here. Had surgery, walking again. My favorite meditation tool is garter stitch, and college is great. I miss my Mothers, but I’m learning so much, and I’m hoping to be in Crow Clan this year.

…I’m a clan leader now. After a couple of years co-leading Nightingale Clan, enjoying the magic of music, these beautiful recurring dreams come to me where I get to share the magic of knotwork, the crucible of intention that runs through my hands while spinning, and the chanting that can be done while knitting lace. I have all these ideas burning in my soul that I want to share. Every step in fiber working is full of magic. I’m seven months pregnant, and I know that while I knit this baby blanket with my hands, I’m knitting together the tissues of a body with my own. How sacred my belly button is, that it connects me to my Mothers, and to Those who will come after…

Llama Clan was born of Wool and Magic. My life has been threaded through with fiber arts, music, magic, and stories of my ancestors. As a clan leader, I weave clans together drawing from my own magical work, and the magical tools that have best served me. I’m grateful to be able to offer Llama Clan again, to help facilitate a unique Twilight Covening clan experience. I hope you will join me.
Twilight Covening is a continuous three-day ritual that connects us with the seasonal shift from light to dark in order to seek inspiration and tools to fuel our practices through the winter.  The intensive work of Twilight Covening takes place in practice-specific Clans of 10-20 people and in full-community rituals that flow together through the weekend.  This year, the gathering will be held October 11-14 in Western Massachusetts.  Registration is open until September 25!  Learn more or register now.  

The Dream – Remembrances & Reflections

by Andras Corban-Arthen

march 1963

Fifty years ago today, I – like so many others all around the country – was glued to my family’s used, grainy  black & white television set, watching the broadcast of the huge civil rights March on Washington at which Martin Luther King delivered his famous “I Have a Dream” speech. The March is now widely considered to be the defining moment of the Civil Rights Movement, and it was so powerfully stirring to watch how that speech galvanized the massive gathering in front of the Lincoln Memorial.

King’s speech was not merely a personal statement: though he was taking the initiative, his words were clearly an exhortation, an invitation to join and shape a collective Dream, to create a better, freer, kinder and more just society. It was very clear, that afternoon, that several hundred thousand people had signed on to be Dreamers together; and I, a wide-eyed thirteen-year-old riveted to a flickering screen, signed up in that moment as well.

I was living in Florida at the time, about to enter the eighth grade, and haltingly starting to develop a social conscience. Except for rare instances, I had not been very aware of racism and segregation until we moved to Florida, where such problems were omnipresent. As a Hispanic, I experienced ethnic hatred and discrimination for the first time, even to the point of getting beaten-up by Anglo sandlot bullies a few times, just because they heard me speaking Spanish.

But as a white Hispanic I mostly passed unscathed, and didn’t have to deal with the constant fear and humiliation that my black and Hispanic dark-skinned friends had to endure – physical violence, spitting, catcalls, having things thrown at them, getting kicked out of stores or certain movie theatres, for instance. And my black friends, in particular, didn’t feel that they could fight back, because they knew what would happen, they’d all heard the stories: if you fought back, you’d get an even worse beating, and then the cops would come, and finish the job before they locked you up; and then you’d go to court and become a “juvenile delinquent,” which in those days was about the worse thing that could happen to a kid with dreams of going to college or getting a decent job.

I was on the track team at school, and I’ll never forget the time when, at a meet in northern Florida, the black athletes on our team were told they’d have to use an old, tiny bathroom that smelled like it hadn’t been cleaned in decades, while the rest of us could use the large, clean modern facilities at the stadium. We told our coach that we refused to compete under those circumstances, that we’d rather get back on the bus and head home. But our black athletes got very upset and insisted on competing, reminding the rest of us about how Jesse Owens had one-upped the Nazis at the Berlin Olympics. One of them, our star runner, put it in words that have been engraved in my memory ever since: “Segregation can keep me from pissing next to the white boys,” he said, “but segregation can’t keep me from beating them in the hundred-yard dash. I want those white boys to be looking at my black ass all the way to the finish line.”

My actual awareness of what the struggle for civil rights was really about happened through Annie, the mother of one of my school friends who was also a track teammate. Annie was blonde, blue-eyed, freckled – about as white as a person could be. But she was affiliated with the Catholic Workers, the movement started by the famous socialist writer Dorothy Day, which focused on social justice and service, non-violence, and the eradication of poverty; and the Catholic Workers were staunch supporters of the Civil Rights Movement.

Annie’s son and I did a school project together on racial segregation, and she became our main source of information. As part of the project, she took us to a big demonstration in downtown Miami, where we met several other kids our age – also from Catholic Worker families – and we all hung out together holding our signs. Afterwards, the parents took us all for ice cream, and, just like that, we organized an informal discussion group which began meeting every few weeks at Annie’s house, and she and some of the other parents started taking us to other marches and demonstrations. It was Annie who first told me about the March on Washington, and it was because of her that I got the chance to see Martin Luther King in person.

It was a year after the March, in the summer of 1964, just before we started high school. We had a track meet scheduled in St. Augustine, a city in northeast Florida which had become widely known as the hot spot of racial tension in the state. The Catholic Workers had learned that an important civil rights event was being planned in St. Augustine – as it happened, just a day or two after our competition – and that Martin Luther King was expected to be there. My parents knew and respected Annie, so they raised no objections when I told them she was going to drive us to the track meet, and that she was hoping we could spend a couple of extra days up north visiting some of her friends.

The demonstration took place outside a segregated restaurant, and by the time we arrived there were quite a lot of  people – maybe a couple of hundred – gathered outside, from both sides of the struggle, with lots of shouting back & forth. The Ku Klux Klan was there, they had a big presence in that city. A lot of people, including us, were very afraid of what might happen: President Kennedy had been assassinated less than a year before, and several million of us had seen Lee Harvey Oswald killed point-blank on live television, so there was a lot of concern that some Klansman would take a shot at Martin (that’s what most everybody involved in the movement called him back then, just “Martin”). We figured that, the more of us who were there, the less likely it would be for someone to try to shoot him.

Annie wouldn’t let us get too close to the front, in case things got hot and we needed to get out of there quickly. Since we couldn’t see very  well over the crowd, we took turns hoisting each other up on our shoulders to get a better look. There was a group of people, both whites and blacks, at the door of the restaurant. It turned out that MLK and several other black civil rights leaders had demanded to be served in the restaurant, had been denied, and refused to leave. Then the police arrived, maybe a dozen cruisers, and went right over to the group by the door. After a bit, they started pulling several of the black men away and toward the cruisers, in handcuffs (I recall a couple of them raising their hands high so everyone could see the shackles).

Martin Luther King was unmistakable as they led him off: he was impeccably dressed in a suit and tie, and he walked very straight and very calmly. Perhaps it was just the excitement of finally seeing him in person, but there was something remarkably different about him, as if he had a glowing aura all around – as if the sun were shining exclusively on him. I have never seen another human being exude as much dignity as he did in that brief moment.

And then they put him in the cruiser, and there was a huge uproar and people started rushing forward to prevent the cars from moving. At that point, Annie decided that things could get really ugly, and insisted that we leave while we could. I only saw Martin for a few seconds, but those few seconds had a huge impact on me, and marked a turning point in my life. Then, of course, less than four years later a bullet finally found him and, in another few short seconds, he was gone.

But the bullet that killed Martin Luther King did not kill the Dream he spoke of fifty years ago. After his death, the Dream spread and grew, reaching peoples and places throughout this country and beyond. The Women’s Liberation Movement (what these days is often called “second wave feminism”), the American Indian Movement, the Anti-War (Vietnam) Movement, the Gay Liberation Movement, and even the Environmental Movement, among many others – movements which have profoundly changed the culture of this country in ways that many people today just take for granted, in ways that they can’t even see –  were all inspired by the power of that Dream shared on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial. And from Latin America to South Africa, from Eastern Europe to Southeast Asia, peoples around the world have acknowledged the power of the Dream to guide their own struggles toward freedom.

Just a couple of years ago, at the height of the “Arab Spring,” I had the privilege of attending a private dinner in honor of Shirin Ebadi, the Iranian Nobel Peace Prize laureate, who was one of the keynote speakers at the 2004 Parliament of the World’s Religions in Barcelona. Someone at the dinner asked Ebadi to what she attributed the sudden surge of protests, uprisings and revolutions throughout the Arab world. Ebadi replied that, for some reason, the uprisings seemed “sudden” only to Americans; that, in fact, the various liberation movements in the Middle East had been going on for decades, and many thousands of activists had been imprisoned, tortured, executed or disappeared over the years in the course of their struggle, and that people in lots of other countries were well aware of that. The leaders of those liberation movements, she added, had spent a very long time learning from the Civil Rights Movement in the United States – from its principles, its spirit, its strategies, its success. And then she spoke movingly of Martin Luther King giving voice to the Dream before the gathered multitude in Washington. “That Dream,” she said, “is now also our Dream.”